Needle-free glucose monitoring, non-invasive glucose monitoring, bloodless glucose monitoring, non-i

24

LIVING

ultrasonic, electromagnetic and

thermal technologies to measure

three distinct criteria to provide

a glucose measurement". It uses

a unique algorithm to analyse the

result, which is displayed on a handheld device

the size of a smartphone.

The non-invasive sensors last six

months but have to be used in

temperatures between 15°C and

35°C. The MARD is not exactly

Dexcom standard either - 17.5% to

19.7%, and is not designed to be worn

continuously.

In addition, there are a number

of interesting and innovative noninvasive

optical sensor developments

in the pipeline:

• Afon Technology, a Welsh

start-up, is using a technology

called microwave spectroscopy.

Spectroscopy is the study of

the interaction of matter and

electromagnetic radiation,

commonly used in blood tests and

medical imaging. Afon employs

radio and microwave frequencies

(multi-resonance), which are both

on the long wavelength end of

the Electromagnetic Spectrum,

to read blood glucose levels via

a non-invasive sensor. This sits

on the inside of your wrist and

communicates via Bluetooth with

your smart device, perhaps even

the smartwatch you can wear over

it. MHRA-approved clinical trials

have begun at the Joint Clinical

Research Facility (JCRF) at Swansea

University. As Afon CEO Sabih

Choudhry reports, "In-house

testing has yielded average MARDs

of 11% to 12%, but we expect to

improve these further with the

implementation of AI and deep

machine learning algorithms."

The plan is to start the regulatory

approval process in late 2023 or

early 2024.

• DiaMondTech, a German biotech

firm, is developing three different

gadgets, the D-Base (a shoeboxsized

device for clinical settings),

the D-Pocket (a hand-held device

you press for a glucose reading,

which could be ready shortly) and

D-Sensor (a bracelet incorporating

a sensor). The technology is

photothermal detection - a beam

of light is directed through the

skin, where glucose converts the

light to heat and blood glucose

levels are then measured based on

the change in temperature. The

D-Base is showing as only slightly

less accurate than Dexcom sensors,

with a MARD of 11.3% to 12.1%,

though low or high atmospheric

or skin temperatures could give

inexact readings.

• GlucoWise was originally

developed by UK company

Mediwise, which is now part

of Canadian smart materials

and phototonics specialist

Metamaterials. It is a small monitor

held on the skin that lies between

the thumb and forefinger. Lowpower

radio waves cross the skin,

helped by a special film technology

which prevents the skin blocking

the waves, in order to measure

blood glucose levels. Readings

are delivered to a smartphone

app. Much heralded but still

not available, the GlucoWise

is undergoing human trials to

determine accuracy.

• GWave from Hagar, an Israeli startup, measures

glucose in the blood

continuously and in real time using

radio frequency waves. The firstgeneration

GWave sensor is about

a third of the size of an average

smartphone and is contained in a

ceramic bracelet, but the firm has

recently secured funds to develop

a second-generation device, which

will be housed in a smartwatch.

Hagar claims its monitor is 95%

accurate compared to an off-theshelf pin-prick device.

• Know Labs in Seattle combines

spectroscopy and radio waves

to detect glucose levels noninvasively

in the blood at any given

time. Its patented Bio-RFID (body

Glucowise device..

Libre 3 and app.

Index

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  7. Dexcom G6 CGM, continuous glucose monitoring
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  11. Medtronic MiniMed 780G System Automated for an easier way to stabilise glucose levels
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  13. Air Liquide Healthcare UK, Tandem t:slim insulin pump, Control-iQ
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  23. Abbott Freestyle Libre 2, Flash Glucose Monitoring, FSL2
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  25. Insulet Omnipod DASH insulin pump with insulin pods, podders, Omnipod DASH Personal Diabetes Manager
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  27. Diabetes kit, diabetes magazine diabetes information
  28. Desang Diabetes Magazine, free diabetes magazine, living with diabetes, the diabetic diet, carb coun
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  31. Diabetes technology education from Diabetes Technology Network DTN
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  33. Medtrum Touchcare Nano Patch Pump and CGM
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