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Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation

(DRWF) is the latest organisation to add

podcasts to its range of communications.

In the first of the series, listen to the

charity's CEO Sarah Tutton introducing the

charity and the research and education

it undertakes. She is joined by volunteer

Lionel Curtis who elaborates on how he

works with DRWF. Then diabetologist Dr

Myank Pattel talks about DRWF's Diabetes

Wellness Day South event. And feet are

in focus in the Staying Well feature with

podiatrist Graham Bowen.

www.drwf.org.uk/podcasts

A large-scale study has found that the

gut microbiome - the composition and

function of bacteria in the intestine -

changes as the day progresses, but not

in people with Type 2 diabetes.

This was established by researchers

based in Freising at ZIEL - Institute for Food

& Health of the Technical University of Munich

(TUM) with one of the most significant studies

related to microbiomes and diabetes with

more than 4,000 participants.

The microbial composition of the

intestines is complex and varies widely

from one individual to another. Many

factors, such as environmental factors,

lifestyle, genetics or illnesses, affect

the intestinal ecosystem of helpful

gut bacteria. Dirk Haller, Professor for

Nutrition and Immunology at TUM, and

his team examined the importance of

daytime-dependent fluctuations of the gut

microbiome concerning Type 2 diabetes.

Chronobiologist Dr. Silke Kiessling,

another contributor to the study, says,

"When certain gut bacteria do not follow

GUT MICROBIOME LINK TO T2

Click on the image to listen to the DRWF podcast.

a day-night rhythm, so if their number and

function does not change over the day,

this can be an indicator for a potential

Type 2 diabetes disease. Knowing this

can improve diagnosis and outlook of

Type 2 diabetes."

These arrhythmic bacteria - those

that are not changing between day

and night - are a marker for potential

disease. Researchers refer to this as a

risk signature. "Mathematical models also

show that this microbial risk signature

consisting of arrhythmic bacteria helps

to diagnose diabetes," explained Sandra

Reitmeier, first author on the study.

Primarily, the scientists analysed data

from an existing independent cohort

by Helmholtz Zentrum München. The

diabetes-related results were validated

using additional groups from Germany.

"By comparing our data to cohorts in

England, we could confirm that there

is - among other things - a strong

regional factor affecting the microbial

ecosystem. Therefore, there is a demand

for finding locally specified arrhythmic risk

signatures," elaborated Haller.

Nutritionist Haller emphasises that

"apart from bacteria and their variations

over the course of the day, other

parameters such as the body mass index

play a role in being able to better predict a

person's future medical conditions."

Registering the time of day when

taking human faecal samples for research

purposes can heavily influence disease

diagnostics. "Documenting these

timestamps is essential for improving risk

markers," Prof. Haller emphasises.

This research substantiates

the hypothesis that changes in the

microbiome have an effect of nutritionrelated

diseases. How gut bacteria

changing (or not changing) during the

day affect other microbiome-associated

diseases, such as Crohn's disease or

intestinal cancer may be subject to further

scientific examination.

The research is published in

Cell Host & Microbe.

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