New drugs to replace insulin, replacing or preserving beta cells in people with type 1 diabetes.

19

LIVING

Susannah Hickling is an experienced healthwriter with a

particular interest in diabetes having previously worked

with Diabetes UK.

And Type 2?

Many research projects are aimed at people with

or at risk of Type 1 diabetes. But there's work

afoot on preventing, delaying or curing Type 2 as

well.

As well as the successful DiRECT trial,

supported by Diabetes UK, which has shown that

Type 2 diabetes can be put in remission with a

low-calorie, diet-based weight-management

programme, research is focusing on drugs. The

aim is to lower blood glucose and prevent people

with the condition progressing to insulin. Use of

insulin in people with Type 2 has dropped thanks

to drugs that are already available, like the

glucagon-like peptide 1s (GLP-1s) semaglutide

(Ozempic) and dulaglutide (Trulicity). These help

the body to produce more insulin when needed

and reduce the glucose the liver produces at

other times.

Beyond this, French firm Poxel's imeglimin

tablet has been launched in Japan as Twymeeg.

It was found in trials to successfully lower blood

glucose in people with Type 2 diabetes, tackling

both lack of insulin production and insulin

resistance. There are also drugs in development

that target obesity, a major risk factor for Type

2. These include one from Bentagenon and Baltic

Bio which aims both to control blood sugar levels

and reduce blood pressure, and an antibody,

Bimagrumab, from German biopharma company

MorphoSys and Novartis, designed to reduce fat

and prevent insulin resistance.

Scientists are also looking at the role

microbes in the gut can play in slowing the

advance of diabetes. This branch of diabetes

science is in its infancy but faecal transplants

- yes, that does mean a poo transplant! -

have been shown in trials to improve insulin

resistance temporarily in obese people with

Type 2 and to preserve beta cell function in

people newly diagnosed with Type 1.

immune system to instruct it not to hunt down beta cells.

It's currently running Phase 1 and 2 trials.

But perhaps the most interesting development in the

immunotherapy arena is the new drug Teplizumab. The

trial, run by TrialNet, an international group of scientists,

doctors and healthcare teams which aims to find a way

to prevent Type 1 diabetes, enrolled participants who

had some beta cells remaining. After six years on the

drug, they were found to be less likely to develop Type 1

diabetes than other high-risk participants on a dummy

drug. Overall, Teplizumab delayed onset of the condition

by three years. There's hope it will soon be licensed for

use in the US and UK.

But there have been failures with other

immunotherapies, so it would be unwise to get too

carried away just yet. It's still too early to know whether

they could end up replacing insulin, or reducing time on

it, or the quantity required.

Other Type 1 solutions

Researchers are looking for ways of predicting who might

be at high risk of developing Type 1 diabetes, with the

idea of channelling those people - generally newborns -

into a prevention programme. Dr Richard Oram at Exeter

University is working on a risk calculator based on genes

known to be involved in the onset of Type 1, funded by

Diabetes UK.

Other researchers are working on a variety of

creative prevention methods. The Global Platform for the

Prevention of Autoimmune Diabetes (GPPAD), launched in

2015, is about halfway through its seven-year POiNT trial,

in which high-risk infants are given insulin powder (as an

encapsulated oral dose) to see if this trains their immune

system not to react against its own insulin-making cells.

Another intriguing oral trial is taking place. The DRI

wants to investigate whether a combination of Vitamin D

and Omega-3 could slow down or stop the progression

of the autoimmune process in Type 1 diabetes. Previous

scientific papers have suggested both might have a

beneficial effect on autoimmune diseases. Time will tell.

With both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, the twinkle in

scientists' eyes is becoming a stronger gleam, but there

is still a way to go before we can announce the end of

insulin or talk confidently about a cure.

FURTHER READING

www.labiotech.eu

www.diabetes.org.uk

Index

  1. Free online Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes information
  2. Free online Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes information
  3. Free online Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes information
  4. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes news
  5. insulin pump, Dana i system, artificial pancreas, Advanced Therapeutics UK, CamAPS FX, Dexcom G6
  6. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes news
  7. Abbott Freestyle Libre 2, Flash Glucose Monitoring, FSL2
  8. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes news
  9. Glooko diabetes data download software. Stay on track in between visits.
  10. Page 0010
  11. Air Liquide Healthcare UK, Tandem t:slim insulin pump with Control IQ
  12. Desang diabetes magazine article on new NICE guidelines April 2022 spur far wider access to diabetes
  13. Home test HbA1c, A1C Now Self-Check
  14. Desang diabetes magazine article on new NICE guidelines April 2022 spur far wider access to diabetes
  15. Medtrum Touchcare Nano Patch Pump and CGM
  16. Diabetes technology, CGM sensors, FreeStyle Libre, Dexcom One, Glucorx Aidex CGM
  17. Diabetes technology, CGM sensors, FreeStyle Libre, Dexcom One, Glucorx Aidex CGM
  18. New drugs to replace insulin, replacing or preserving beta cells in people with type 1 diabetes.
  19. New drugs to replace insulin, replacing or preserving beta cells in people with type 1 diabetes.
  20. Stem cells and gene editing for a cure to Type 1 diabetes.
  21. Medtronic MiniMed 780G System Automated for an easier way to stabilise glucose levels
  22. Page 0022
  23. Stem cells and gene editing for a cure to Type 1 diabetes.
  24. Desang Diabetes Magazine, free diabetes magazine, living with diabetes
  25. Desang Diabetes Magazine, free diabetes magazine, living with diabetes
  26. JDRF's pathway to choice project for accdss to diabetes technology.
  27. JDRF's pathway to choice project for accdss to diabetes technology.
  28. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes diet
  29. Diabetes technology education from Diabetes Technology Network DTN
  30. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes diet
  31. Insulet Omnipod DASH insulin pump with insulin pods, podders, Omnipod DASH Personal Diabetes Manager
  32. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes diet
  33. Desang diabetes magazine, diabetes diet
  34. Desang Diabetes Magazine, Making Carbs Count, carbohydrate counting for diabetes
  35. Making Carbs Count, Carbohydrate counting for diabetes, Desang diabetes magazine
  36. Making Carbs Count, Carbohydrate counting for diabetes, Desang diabetes magazine
  37. Desang diabetes kitbags, bag for diabetes kit
  38. Desang Diabetes Magazine, free diabetes magazine, living with diabetes

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