The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes

LIVINGLIVING

diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes often

have high levels of insulin in the body

at the point of diagnosis, which seems

contrary to expectation. The insulin levels

may be high, but never high enough to

meet the resistance which is driving them

up. Over time, many Type 2s run out of

beta cells, and will also end up on insulin.

What sets Type 1 diabetes apart, as we

shall see, is an intensely active immune

system that delivers the coup de grace.

Type 1 diabetes occurs by and large in

a small sector of the population (perhaps

2.5%) that carries particular 'Type 1'

genes. The genes occur randomly, which

is why Type 1 diabetes so often pops up

in families that have never known diabetes

before. The most important of these

genes control the immune system, and

make it intensely reactive. The accelerator

hypothesis proposes that stressed beta

cells send out signals to which that small

proportion of people with Type 1 genes

reacts excessively, leading to immune

(inflammatory) destruction of the beta

cells.

So, if insulin resistance shortens the

survival of beta cells in the population

at large, the stress sets off an immune

reaction in a genetically distinct sector

of the population (the ones with the Type

1 gene) that rapidly completes the job.

These genes are wild cards, so most

families will not see it coming, and it's very

important they don't blame themselves

for a genetic susceptibility that they could

not have avoided.

A dirty job

When cells die, and they are dying all the

time, they break up into small particles. As

well as fighting off viruses, a much more

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM FIGHTS BACK. "I wanted to know,

why aren't we able to prevent diabetes yet? Are we really

understanding the progress of the disease, or its cause? I

wondered if we were coming at it from the wrong direction

and that we should reassess our knowledge base."

primeval job of the immune system is to

clean up and dispose of those particles

- the body's house keeper. The dead

material can't just drift around the body,

so the immune system cleans it up. So,

if there are a lot of dead beta cells, you

would anticipate correspondingly greater

immune system activity.

But what if the rate of beta cell

death is accelerated in someone who

happens to have been dealt a wild card

- genes that direct the immune system

to over-react? And which comes first in

type 1 diabetes? Does a faulty immune

system destroy innocent beta cells

(classic understanding), or do stressed

beta cells face destruction by a normal

immune system that has been badly

directed genetically (Wilkin's new theory).

It matters, because you might want to

use immunotherapy to calm the immune

system in the first instance, but something

to protect the beta cell from stress in the

second instance.

Nobody is denying the role of the

immune system in the death of beta cells

that results in Type 1 diabetes, rather

it is the order of events that is being

questioned for the first time. In the past,

people perceived that a faulty immune

system was attacking the beta cells, but

Wilkin sees things the other way round.

He believes the immune system would

not be interested in mobilizing its forces

unless the beta cells were first sending

out distress signals. The problem for

a very small and random minority - the

2.5% - is an excessively intense mopping

up operation that succeeds in finishing

off the remaining beta cells. We could

have been wrongly blaming the immune

system, so maybe it's time for a change

of tack, if only to explore an alternative

possibility.

Wilkin reiterates, "Modern society

is increasingly resistant to the action of

insulin, which leads to a greater demand

for insulin from a diminishing number of

beta cells. The stressed beta cells die

more rapidly and send out signals which

Index

  1. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes information
  2. Abbott Freestyle Libre, Flash Glucose Monitoring, blood testing without lancets
  3. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes information, Sue Marshall
  4. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes news
  5. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes news
  6. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes news
  7. Accu-Chek Mobile blood glucose system
  8. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes diet
  9. Desang diabetes magazine diabetes diet
  10. diabetes kit, Ascensia Diabetes Care, Contour Next One
  11. diabetes kit, Ascensia Diabetes Care, Contour Next One
  12. The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes
  13. The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes
  14. The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes
  15. Ascensia Contour Diabetes blood test meters
  16. The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes
  17. The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes
  18. The Accelerator Hypothesis, Professor Terry Wilkin, the ADAPT trial, cure for Type 1 diabetes
  19. Hid-In insulin pump belts, Leather ICE medical ID
  20. cured food, diabetes food, diabetes food news, desang diabetes magazine food news
  21. cured food, diabetes food, diabetes food news, desang diabetes magazine food news
  22. Making Carbs Count Aubergines
  23. Carb and nutrient value of onions and their value in the diabetic diet
  24. Carb and nutrient value of onions and their value in the diabetic diet
  25. Accu-Chek Insight insulin pump
  26. Living with diabetes, the diabetic diet, carb counting

Related Issues

powered by PageTiger