diabetes research

Technosphere. Technosphere converts

insulin into powder form which is then

loaded into a cartridge and delivered

via inhalation (with something called a

'Dreamboat device') deep into the lungs

in monomeric form. Since it's delivered in

monomeric form. Even so, peak insulin

levels are achieved within 12 to 14

minutes of administration with all insulin

out of the system within 3 hours, this

action being similar to other Rapid Acting

Analogues (RAAs), though the 'peak'

is faster (other RAAs such as Humalog

or Novolog (RAAs), peak between 45-

90min. This is because current RAAs,

which are injected subcutaneously, are

assembled and delivered into the body

in the form of hexamers. After injection,

these hexamers must be broken down

by the body into its useable form: as a

monomer. The breaking down of the

insulin is part of the delayed action of the

drugs. More info here.

New for Type 2

Recently the European Commission (EC)

has approved Invokana (canagliflozin) in the

European Union for the treatment of adults

with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, to improve

glycaemic control. Canagliflozin is an oral,

once-daily medication, which belongs

to a new class of medications called

sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2)

inhibitors. The kidneys make an important

contribution in controlling blood glucose

levels. As glucose is filtered from the blood

into the kidneys, it is reabsorbed back

into the bloodstream. An important carrier

responsible for this reabsorption is called

sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2).

Canagliflozin selectively inhibits SGLT2, and,

as a result, promotes the loss of glucose via

the urine, lowering blood glucose levels in

adults with Type 2 diabetes.

Large scale studies have

demonstrated that due to the increased

urinary loss of glucose, canagliflozin is

also associated with reductions in both

systolic blood pressure and body weight.

The drug is supplied by the Janssen

Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &

Johnson. www.janssen-emea.com

In January 2014 AstraZeneca

and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

announced that the US Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) approved Farxiga

(dapagliflozin), a once-daily oral treatment

indicated as an adjunct to diet and

exercise to improve glycaemic control in

adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is

already approved for use in the EU.

Danish pharmaceutical manufacturer

Novo Nordisk's drug Ryzodeg, which

includes two different insulin products,

has been shown to significantly lower

rates of hypoglycemia and has led to

improved blood sugar levels for those

with Type 2 diabetes compared to those

taking a single insulin, according to the

results of a new study. As reported by

Brenda Neugent in Diabetes Health,

December 2013, the drug (which is a

combination of two different insulins,

insulin degludec, a once-a-day basal

insulin and insulin aspart, a mealtime

insulin), is injected twice a day. It was

studied over a 26-week period and results

were compared to those of a twice-daily

single insulin. Researchers said that

those taking Ryzodeg saw lower blood

sugar rates overall, along with as much

as an 80 percent decrease in instances of

hypoglycemia than those taking a single

mealtime insulin.

Ryzodeg was approved for use to

treat diabetes in Europe and the United

Kingdom early last year, but in the United

States, the FDA rejected Novo Nordisk's

application for approval for the drug in

February, and called for more study on the

cardiovascular risks and safety of the drug.

There is now a range of other injected

medicines on the market, mainly aimed

at the growing population of people

with Type 2 diabetes. One of them

Liraglutide, has been found to work as

well in Type 1 diabetes as a weight-loss

agent in nondiabetic patients, researchers

reported in a randomized controlled trial.

News item by Kristina Fiore Staff Writer,

MedPage Today. Liraglutide, marketed

under the brand name Victoza, is a longacting

GLP-1 agonist developed by

Novo Nordisk for the treatment of Type 1

diabetes. Full news item here.

Bide your time

It's a waiting game, but with so much

underway, we can all expect to be

recipients of improved medications and

kit, and not before too long either. We'll

keep you informed as things progress!d

"Thermalin's goal with this project is to manipulate how insulin

binds with receptors so that it kicks in quicker and lasts for a

shorter period of time," says Thermalin's CEO Rick Berenson


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